This entry is part 5 of 9 in the series Annual Review

Welcome to the 5th annual review of telecommunications infrastructure development in Africa. This review combines my analysis of the last 12 months as well as links to over 350 articles covering a range of African telecom infrastructure development issues in 2018.

Undersea Cables

Investment in undersea fibre optic cables appears to be the new normal as 2018 saw no slacking off of undersea cable investment news. The biggest news was the launch of the South Atlantic Cable System (SACS) which finally connects Africa directly with South America, offering alternative, lower-latency routes to the Americas. This is probably of most interest to companies that depend on extremely low-latency internet connections for financial trading although SACS is also going to be interesting for the new alliances that emerge for internet capacity and the redundancy it offers existing operators.

A number of smaller undersea cable initiatives were announced including Cap Amílcar Cabral, Ceiba-2, METISS, and Ultramar-GE. This reflects a maturing of the market where smaller countries that have been left out of the first waves of undersea cable investment are seeking to connect into these larger cable initiatives whether for the first time or to establish redundant capacity links.

Also of interest was an announcement from GLO of a 12Tbps capacity, 850km GLO2 undersea cable project and news of a partnership between MainOne and Orange to add landing stations in Senegal and Côte d’Ivoire.

Interesting too in 2018 are the undersea cable projects that refuse to go away. SAEx, which has been a great powerpoint presentation for the last six years, is showing signs of life at last with Alcatel beginning a survey for the cable in October.

Almost in a category of their own are the PEACE and SAIL undersea cables which are less commercial investments than national strategic investments in global infrastructure by China, perhaps as part of their Belt and Road strategy. Whether these cables will be sustainable in the long term is an open question but either way it is good news for access to international capacity on the continent.

Perhaps the most important lesson learned from the last ten years of cable investment is that one international connection is not enough. Fibre optic capacity enables the internet economy and those who build their enterprises on it depend on it to always be available. Millions of dollars a day can be lost in undersea cable interruptions. Having a redundant international connection has become an essential feature of any robust digital economy.

KenyaPEACE2018-01-08Huawei begin subsea survey on new Asia to Africa cable route | total telecom
AngolaSACS2018-01-24Offshore installation of SACS nears completion | Markets Insider
DjiboutiPEACE2018-01-30Submarine cables set to link East Africa with Asia, Europe
MauritiusMETISS2018-02-19La construction du câble METISS, confiée à Alcatel Submarine Networks et Electra TLC SPA - Agence Ecofin
AngolaSACS2018-02-21SACS lands in Brazil providing first ever subsea link between S America and Africa | total telecom
AngolaSACS2018-02-23Africa: Cable Landing a New Chapter in Africa-America Telecoms -
CameroonSAIL2018-03-02Camtel, l’opérateur public camerounais des télécoms, annonce l’exploitation du câble sous-marin entre le Cameroun et le Brésil, au plus tard le 15 septembre 2018 - Agence Ecofin
RodriguesSEACOM2018-03-05PCCW Global To Link Rodrigues With Submarine Cable - SubTel Forum
Equatorial GuineaCEIBA-22018-03-06Guinea Ecuatorial conecta con Sudamérica a través del cable SAIL – GITGE
MauritiusSACS, IOX2018-03-20IOX Cable And Angola Cables Sign Agreement To Expand Their Reach Across Africa -
AlgeriaOrval2018-04-18Algérie: Houda Imane Feraoun annonce la connexion du pays à deux nouveaux câbles sous-marins avant la fin de l’année
NigeriaGLO12018-04-24Glo, Huawei to construct 2nd submarine cable, Glo2 - Vanguard News
AlgeriaOrval2018-04-25Algeria progresses on new submarine cable connectivity project - ITWeb Africa
NigeriaGLO22018-04-25Globacom to Roll out Glo2 Submarine Cable in 18 Months - THISDAYLIVE
NigeriaGLO22018-04-26Globacom to build new subsea cable in Nigeria
NigeriaGLO22018-04-26Huawei and Globalcom to build new subsea cable in West Africa | total telecom
NigeriaGLO22018-04-27Huawei to build Glo2 fibre cable in Nigeria - ITWeb Africa
NigeriaGLO22018-05-03Achieving Last Mile Connectivity with Glo2 - THISDAYLIVE
Cape VerdeELLALINK2018-05-07EllaLink Submarine Cable System receives €25 million euro “Intent to Award” from GÉANT and RedCLARA
CameroonSAIL2018-05-25Huawei cable ship sails on journey to lay new south Atlantic link
Seychelles2018-05-29Seychelles government, cable company agree to second internet cable for island nation - Seychelles News Agency
Equatorial GuineaCEIBA-22018-06-01La Guinée équatoriale inaugure le câble sous-marin de fibre optique Ceiba-2 le 4 juin 2018
RegionalSEACOM2018-06-05SEACOM Finalizes the Upgrade of Subsea Cable System to 1.5Tbps for High-Speed Backbones
Equatorial GuineaCEIBA-22018-06-06GITGE Inaugurates Ceiba-2 Cable
DjiboutiPEACE2018-08-31Pakistan, Djibouti land deals for 60Tbps Peace subsea cable
AngolaSACS2018-09-05Le câble SACS, reliant l’Angola au Brésil devrait être opérationnel d’ici la fin du mois de septembre
CameroonSAIL2018-09-05SAIL consortium completes Cameroon to Brazil cable connectivity
CameroonSAIL2018-09-05SAIL subsea cable system connects S America and Africa for the first time | total telecom
CameroonSAIL2018-09-10Africa has fibre optic link to South America - ITWeb Africa
Nigeria SenegalMAINONE2018-09-14Orange to invest in West African subsea initiative | total telecom
AngolaSACS2018-09-19First Subsea Cable Across South Atlantic Activated | Dyn Blog
NigeriaMAINONE2018-09-20TE Connectivity: Every Connection Counts - TE | TE Connectivity
South AfricaSAEX2018-09-24SAEx, Telecom Italia partner for US leg of SA cable - TechCentral
Sao TomeUltramar GE 2018-09-26GITGE, ASN to Link Sao Tome and Annobon - SubTel Forum
DjiboutiPEACE2018-09-29Seychelles signs contract for second underwater communications cable to open in 2020 - Seychelles News Agency
South AfricaSAEX2018-10-04SAEx broadband cable progressing after deal with Alcatel - TechCentral
South AfricaSAEX2018-10-04Capacity Media - global telecoms news, events and community
Cape Verde, GuineaCap Amílcar Cabral2018-10-29Cape Verde and Guinea soon connected by fiber optics
MauritiusMETISS2018-11-06Câble MARS : coup d’envoi des travaux de connexion le mardi 6 novembre -technologie- my.t - île Maurice
AngolaSACS2018-11-14SACS Cable to expand connectivity in Africa via data centresIT News Africa – Up to date technology news, IT news, Digital news, Telecom news, Mobile news, Gadgets news, Analysis and Reports | Africa's Technology News Leader
South AfricaACE2018-11-21Sierra Leone data penetration still below expectation – SALCAB | Politico SL
Cape VerdeCap Amílcar Cabral2018-12-14Capacity Media - global telecoms news, events and community
BeninACE2018-12-29Benin requires the ACE GIE to stop illegal exploitation of the Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) fibre - Ecofin Agency
Cape Verde, GuineaCap Amílcar Cabral2018-12-29Cape Verde and Guinea to soon be linked by submarine optical fiber - Ecofin Agency
GuineaCap Amílcar Cabral2018-12-29GUILAB and Cabo Verde Telecom sign a MoU to build a regional telecommunications submarine cable system - Ecofin Agency

Terrestrial Backbone Fibre

Terrestrial fibre investment too showed no signs of slowing down with fibre investment announcements from 25 African countries in 2018. Perhaps most notable was Liquid Telecom’s announcement of the “One Africa” fibre optic network. Through a combination of build-outs, acquisitions, and partnerships, Liquid Telecom now has fibre optic infrastructure that stretches all the way from Cape Town to Cairo. The speed at which Liquid Telecom has grown is remarkable and is clearly good news for intra-African internet traffic. They are by far the biggest regional fibre network operator on the continent.

Unfortunately the massive investment in terrestrial fibre capacity hasn’t been matched by commensurately significant drops in the cost of terrestrial access. In many countries on the continent, it still costs more to get data to a submarine cable landing point than it does to take it the rest of the way to the US or Europe.

One big change in 2018 that may be a sign of things to come is the arrival of global internet transit provider, Hurricane Electric  (HE) into the Kenyan market. By operating a Point of Presence (PoP) in Nairobi, it allows service providers to buy international capacity (transit) from them directly without having to purchase both terrestrial and international transit. This is not a brand new concept by any means. Undersea cable operators like Seacom have operated PoPs in a number of major African cities for some time. What is unique about Hurricane Electric is that they don’t own any undersea or terrestrial infrastructure in or around Africa. They are able to establish a PoP by trading capacity on their international networks with African network operators. This allowed them to offer wholesale transit pricing at a significantly lower price than local operators. Expect this trend to grow to other major African cities in 2019.

Global transit providers like HE aren’t the full solution to terrestrial fibre prices though. Governments that have investments in national fibre optic networks need to unlock the potential that high prices are keeping pent up in their fibre networks. One strategy would be to offer shares to smaller service providers to enable them to compete more effectively with large operators.

SierraLeone2018-11-2348% cost reduction for bandwidth in Sierra Leone - ITWeb Africa
Uganda, Kenya2018-10-27Affordable internet comes knocking at Uganda- The Exchange
Nigeria, Algeria2018-11-02Algeria, Nigeria eager to complete trans-Saharan fibre project - ITWeb Africa
Algeria2018-01-23Algerie Telecom’s fibre backbone to surpass 80,000km this year
Algeria2018-06-20Algérie: GRTG loue à Comintal son réseau de fibre optique noire pour l'aider à améliorer l’accès à Internet dans le pays
Angola, South Africa2018-11-26Angola Cables, Broadband InfraCo sign connectivity agreement - Lightwave
Benin2018-04-13Bénin : le gouvernement annonce l'extension du programme PDI2T, destiné au déploiement du haut débit
Benin2018-04-12Bénin: selon Djalil Assouma, DG de Bénin Télécom Infrastructures, la phase 1 du projet PDI2T est réalisée à 83%
South Africa2018-11-21Big fibre plans for Liquid Telecom in South Africa
Burkina Faso, Ghana2018-07-23Burkina Faso govt lauds US$20.6m fibre optic project - ITWeb Africa
Ghana2018-07-11Burkina Faso: le tronçon de fibre optique reliant Ouagadougou à la frontière ghanéenne, inauguré
South Africa2018-11-13BusinessLIVE
Gabon, Cameroon2018-09-27CAB backbone project enters fourth phase - ITWeb Africa
Angola, Uganda2018-02-16Cable Compendium: a guide to the week’s submarine and terrestrial developments
Mauritius2018-01-12Cable Compendium: a guide to the week’s submarine and terrestrial developments
CAR2018-04-06Central African Republic's €33.3m fibre network project underway - ITWeb Africa
Cameroon2018-02-05Congo to connect to Cameroon and Central Africa via a 550 km optical fiber - Business in Cameroon
Cameroon2018-07-16Congo: 17 sociétés en lice pour la construction du lien de fibre optique avec la Centrafrique et le Cameroun
Cote D’Ivoire2018-12-29Côte d'Ivoire secures a CFA72bn loan from AFD to deploy optical fiber - Ecofin Agency
Ghana2018-04-17DANIDA Hands Over ICT Project To government - BusinessGhana News | General
Zimbabwe2018-06-15Dark Fibre Africa expands into Zim amid acquisition rumours - ITWeb Africa
Regional2018-07-31Economic promise linked to Cape-to-Cairo deal - ITWeb Africa
Regional2018-12-18EIB confirms support for EUR 495m transformational investment across Africa at Vienna summit
Uganda2018-10-06Facebook, Airtel Uganda partner with BCS to expand cheap  internet to Uganda’s upcountry – PML Daily
Kenya2018-03-13Fibre-optic connectivity in Kenya accelerates move to the cloud | IT News Africa – Africa's Technology News Leader
South Africa2018-05-31FibreCo increases dark fibre resilience from Johannesburg to Durban | Intelligent CIO Africa
Gabon2017-10-26Gabon : Korea Telecom annonce le déploiement de la fibre optique à Oyem, Bitam et Lambaréné - TIC Mag
Gabon2018-04-20Gabon: Gabon to invest $277 million in fibre optic network, Telecom News, ET Telecom
DRC, Congo2018-08-22Helios Towers announces 1,800km new backbone network for DRC - ITWeb Africa
Regional2018-09-28How Liquid Telecom Connected Africa from Cape to Cairo » 263Chat
Uganda2018-05-02Kenyan company to lose control over Ugandan internet highway - Daily Monitor
Kenya2018-10-26Ketraco eyes Sh500m from Liquid Telecom deal - Business Daily
Benin2018-03-23Le Bénin passe à l’internet haut débit fin août prochain
Gabon2018-04-08Le Gabon et le Congo interconnectés par la fibre optique - RFI
Nigeria2018-09-03Le Nigeria obtient 328 millions $ de la Chine pour réaliser la Phase 2 du réseau national de fibre optique
Ethiopia, Eritrea2018-07-13Les services télécoms entre l’Ethiopie et l’Erythrée rétablis après 20 ans d’interruption
Regional2018-09-11Liquid Telecom Cape to Cairo network first of its kind for Africa -
Zimbabwe2018-12-11Liquid Telecom in R2.6-billion funding boost - TechCentral
Regional2018-07-17Liquid Telecom in venture to build Cape to Cairo fibre network | ITWeb
Egypt2018-12-10Capacity Media - global telecoms news, events and community
Egypt2018-12-29Liquid Telecom to invest $400m in Egypt for network infrastructure, data centres | IOL Business Report
Malawi2018-02-02Malawi completes US$23m national fibre rollout project - ITWeb Africa
Mali2018-12-29Mali: National assembly authorizes government to borrow XOF93 billion for "Mali digital 2020" - Ecofin Agency
Mauritania2018-03-14Mauritania to add 1,600km of fibre backbone this month
Mauritius2018-11-15Mauritius the Only African State with 100% Fibre Coverage
Uganda2018-01-29Museveni orders gov’t to switch to UTL internet
Nigeria2018-02-05Nigeria: NCC Approves Two New Infrastructure Companies for South East, North West -
Botswana2018-02-14Nimbus constructs TKF line linking Namibia to Botswana - ITWeb Africa
Uganda2018-02-07NITA-U Updates the Parliamentary Committee on ICT on the Status of Missing Links Project
Malawi2018-09-06Private Equity Firm Harith Buys Into Malawi Fiber Network
Uganda2018-02-02Report on NITA-U's Internet Backbone Infrastructure Project - GURU8
Nigeria2018-08-03RoW approval: IHS returns InfraCo license — Business — The Guardian Nigeria Newspaper – Nigeria and World News
Zimbabwe2018-02-06SA firm plans $60m fibre network investment - NewsDay Zimbabwe
Egypt2018-07-15Telecom Egypt, Liquid Telecom sign Cape to Cairo fibre network deal
South Africa2018-08-22Telkom’s massive fibre network versus the rest
DRC2018-02-09TIC-CONGO : la  mission du projet CAB présentée à la presse - Justin Morel Junior
Nigeria, Algeria2018-01-25Trans-Saharan Highway Project Will Strengthen Strategic Relations Between Algeria, Nigeria – Onyeama | Independent Nigeria
Zimbabwe2018-05-30Villagers Dig Up TelOne Fibre Cables Out Of Curiosity - Techzim
Ghana2018-08-06Vodafone expands Fibre Optic Network in West Africa | Business News 2018-08-06
Liberia2018-06-19Who’s Digging In and Around Monrovia? The CSquared Monrovia Metro Fiber Optic Ring Project (AKA Google’s Project Link), And Its Impact on the GoL’s Pro-Poor Agenda. | Liberian Observer
Ghana2018-09-01Bawumia Cuts Sod For $42m Fibre Optic Project - Daily Guide Africa

Fibre To The Home and OTT

Like other fibre markets, the rapid spread of Fibre To the Home (FTTH) seems perfectly normal now whereas it barely existed only a few years ago. The combined trend of rising demand of streaming movie and television services and the decreasing cost of FTTH deployment continues to fuel this boom. Fibre is a significantly different technology from wireless in two important ways. First, it has a much longer lifespan. Whereas wireless technologies must be replaced or upgraded every 3-5 years, fibre optic infrastructure can last 15-25 years. Second, while wireless technology continues to improve in capacity, it does have limits. Fibre optic infrastructure, on the other hand, capable of carrying terabits and even petabits of traffic, effectively does not. I have argued that any operator that is planning to be around for a few years should be investing in fibre optic network infrastructure as part of their strategy.

Along with FTTH, streaming media or Over The Top (OTT) companies continue to grow and evolve on the continent. In 2018, Netflix announced its first investments in an original South African series, which hopefully is just the first of many investments in local content in African countries by OTT companies. The biggest losers in the spread of OTT services are those who markets are being eroded by OTT. This includes the hundreds of millions of dollars invested by governments and companies in digital terrestrial broadcast system as a part of the digital switchover from analogue to digital television broadcasting. It is hard to see how any digital terrestrial broadcast markets will ever break even. Satellite television is also suffering but their ability to reach outside of the urban centres served by FTTH services providers means they are not going away any time soon. Also, sports and live events seem to be areas of broadcast that OTT service providers remain excluded from.

FTTHKenya2018-05-10141,000 homes get Safaricom fibre Internet access - Business Daily
FTTHAngola2018-02-05Algeria Telecom rolls out controversial FTTH - ITWeb Africa
FTTHAlgeria2018-01-31Algerie Telecom announces major FTTH deployment
FTTHRegional2018-03-13Fibre 'land grap' underway in East, Southern Africa says SEACOM - ITWeb Africa
FTTHSouth Africa2018-05-03How many fibre infrastructure and service providers there are in South Africa
FTTHSouth Africa2018-06-04How many homes in South Africa have a fibre connection
FTTHBenin2018-06-08ISOCEL to launch first FTTH service in Benin, first in capital Cotonou and then more widely | Balancing Act - Africa
FTTHBotswana2018-07-31KT to carry out fibre project for Botswana’s BoFiNet
FTTHSudan2018-02-27Liquid Telecom - News
FTTHSudan2018-02-28Liquid, Sudatel pen landmark FTTH deal - ITWeb Africa
FTTHReunion2018-06-14Mediaserv covers 75% of households with FTTH
FTTHBotswana2018-02-23Mmegi Online :: Mascom first to launch Fibre to the Home
FTTHRwanda2018-04-25More Kigali households get fibre optic coverage | The New Times | Rwanda
FTTHAngola2018-02-02MSTelcom lançará serviço Triple Play - Revista Rumo
FTTHSouth Africa2018-03-29Octotel to double down on Cape Town fibre expansion - TechCentral
FTTHTogo2018-03-26Operators race to boost 4G, fibre optic access in Togo - ITWeb Africa
FTTHSudan2018-07-03Sudatel, Nokia to trial 5G mobile tech - ITWeb Africa
FTTHTanzania2018-02-28Tanzania: TTCL Embarks On Fibre to Home Project -
FTTHTanzania2018-02-28TTCL embarks on fibre to home project
FTTHKenya2018-01-08Video-on-demand spurs rise in fibre Internet users - Business Daily
FTTHSouth Africa2018-05-08Vumatel rolling out in Alexandra will kill DStv market share
FTTHUganda2018-10-08Zuku Fiber service packages and prices in Uganda. - Dignited
OTTZimbabwe2018-01-08African pay TV subscriber numbers to grow 74% by 2023 – Digital TV Europe
OTTBenin2018-08-28Benin introduces new service tax
OTTUganda2018-08-08Facebook to hold back Uganda investment over tax - Business Daily
OTTKenya2018-02-21Kwese acquires stake in Malaysia-based iflix - Business Daily
OTTGhana2018-11-02Kwesé TV is no MORE! Company goes digital with Kwesé Play, Kwesé Free Sports & Kwesé Iflix - Proudly Ghanaian! | EnewsGH
OTTRegional2018-05-31Netflix in Africa hiring content producer for Africa, Turkey, Middle East more Nollywood, Arab language shows — Quartz
OTTSouth Africa2018-12-10Netflix unveils its first South African original series - TechCentral
OTTSouth Africa2018-06-14South Africans would rather have Netflix over DStv
OTTSouth Africa2018-07-17Tbo Touch to take on DStv, Netflix with new venture THD - TechCentral
OTTSouth Africa2018-07-17Tbo Touch to take on DStv, Netflix with new venture THD - TechCentral
OTTZimbabwe2018-10-05TelOne to launch Africa's first fully converged on-demand entertainment service - Bulawayo24 News
OTTRegional2018-05-30The rise of OTT and VOD services in Africa | Screen Africa
OTTSouth Africa2018-05-02Urban SA turning its back on linear pay TV, GfK says - TechCentral
OTTZambia2018-09-14Zambia to tax internet phone calls - The East African

Licensed Spectrum

The biggest news in licensed spectrum in 2018 was the licensing of digital dividend spectrum (700MHz and 800MHz) for mobile broadband across a number of countries on the continent.

The drama of Ghana’s 800MHz auction which began in 2017 with only MTN the only successful bidder, paying $67.5 million for 20MHz (2x10MHz) of spectrum, carried on in 2018. The regulator’s attempts to carry out a second auction were stymied by MTN’s insistence that any bidder must match the amount that they paid for the spectrum. This option did not find any takers. The regulator compromised by offering smaller chunks of spectrum 10MHz (2x5MHz) in the second round for $33.7 million each, although still the same price per MHz. They eventually settled on $30 million for 10MHz, which was acquired by Vodafone just before year end.

In Tanzania, a successful spectrum auction was held in the 700MHz band with two operators, Vodacom Tanzania and Azam Telecom winning licenses for 20MHz (2x10MHz) for USD10M each.

In Mozambique, the regulator put 800MHz, 1800MHz, and 2600MHz up for auction but only received bids for 800MHz spectrum. Three of the five 10MHz (2x5MHz) lots were successfully auctioned at $15M each to Mcel, Vodacom and Movitel. This is a great step forward after the same 800MHz spectrum was put up for auction in 2013 with no bidders due to the high reserve price. The fact that no bids were made for either 1800MHz or 2600MHz may be due to the lower capital costs required for network rollout in 800MHz spectrum, thanks to the larger cell size that is possible in that frequency. The 30 million dollar reserve price for 10MHz of 1800MHz may also have been a factor.

In Kenya, where the regulator has chosen not to use spectrum auctions as a vehicle for assigning spectrum, plans for the 700MHz band are a little confusing to the external observer. The regulator has divided the band into three lots of (I assume) 30MHz (2x15MHz) each. Last year, Jamii Telecom was given a trial license for one of these lots and the regulator has encouraged second tier service providers to form consortia to request the other two lots. Successful applicants will be assigned the spectrum for a year and then will be allowed to keep it if they pay the USD25M fee. First tier operators (Safaricom, Airtel, Telkom Kenya) who received 800MHz spectrum last year are precluded from participation in 700MHz.

You can see from the above that there is no particular standard for either price per MHz or the default size of the spectrum lots made available. In theory, making smaller lots available enables operators to bid on the amount of spectrum they need by choosing the number of lots to bid on but the reality seems to be that the reserve prices are so high that operators are only just meeting the reserve price for a single lot. Larger frequency assignments can help to reduce the likelihood of a cell being overwhelmed by a combination of users and demand. Thus, a comparatively small license such as 10MHz (2x5MHz) may not be ideal for use in dense urban areas.

The missing story in all of the above auctions are the missing operators, those who could not afford the multi-million dollar entry fee. New spectrum licenses ares going to existing incumbents and that’s that. A side-effect of high spectrum fees is that small and even medium-sized operators are locked out of the LTE market. This is obviously not good news for competition and, in particular, is not good news for rural access as high auction prices for spectrum are going to push operators to deploy where they can make their money back fastest, in densely populated, comparatively wealthy urban areas. There is an urgent need for spectrum polices and regulation that directly address affordable, rural, service delivery.

LTERwanda2018-01-05Rwandan 4G network hits 95% coverage
LTETogo2018-01-08Newcomer TEOLIS now ‘operational’ in Togo
LTESenegal2018-01-18Orange Senegal targets 50% LTE coverage by end-2018
LTEMalawi2018-01-24Airtel 4G to cover three cities | Malawi 24 - All the latest Malawi news
LTEGambia2018-01-30Africell Gambia launches LTE, claims 68Mbps speed
LTESierra Leone2018-01-30Sierratel launches LTE services
LTEKenya2018-02-08Airtel pays Sh2.5bn licence fee for full 4G Internet rollout - Business Daily
LTEGhana2018-02-09Afrimax announces sale of Busy Internet Ghana | IT News Africa – Africa's Technology News Leader
LTENigeria2018-02-13Airtel switches on 4G network in Ibadan
SpectrumNigeria60GHz2018-03-01NCC seeks release of 60Ghz frequency spectrum for broadband deployment — Technology — The Guardian Nigeria Newspaper – Nigeria and World News
AuctionKenya700MHz2018-03-07Connecting Africa - Kenya's 4G Hopefuls Wait for Spectrum Ruling
DSORegional2018-03-07Microsoft PowerPoint - Nairobi 2018 ITU Broadcast Workshop - DSO - Digital Migration Status (Update) in Africa.pptx - Nairobi 2018 ITU Broadcast Workshop - DSO - Digital Migration Status (Update) in Africa.pdf
LTERegional2018-03-08Africa: Nokia, Orange Sustain Major Africa LTE Rollout -
LTELibya2018-03-09LTT launches LTE fixed broadband service
SpectrumKenya700MHz2018-03-1210 telecom companies launch bid for 4G licence - Business Daily
AuctionKenya700MHz2018-03-13Kenyan consortia seek 4G licences
LTETogo2018-03-13Togocel plans 4G launch in Lome next month
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-03-13Ghana to issue second 4G spectrum license in June - ITWeb Africa
AuctionTanzania700MHz2018-03-14TCRA invites comments on 700MHz spectrum auction procedure
LTELiberia2018-03-20ORANGE Liberia Launches 4G LTE Sites in Grand Bassa | Liberian Observer
SpectrumNigeria2018-04-17Nigeria okays frequency spectrum trading among operators | Technology Times
LTEKenya2018-05-02Airtel Kenya Joins 4G Family with Nairobi and Mombasa Launch
LTENiger2018-05-03Airtel secures Niger Republic's first 4G license - ITWeb Africa
LTENigeria2018-05-08Airtel expands 4G to Abuja
LTETogo2018-05-09Togo to issue 4G licences to Togocel and Moov; extends 2G/3G concessions to 2032
LTENiger2018-05-11Airtel spends 12 billion for the acquisition of its 4G license in Niger | NexTV News
AuctionTanzania700MHz2018-05-12Vodacom Tanzania eyes more spectrum after solid annual earnings growth | Business | | Karachi
LTEDRC2018-05-17Vodacom DRC first to launch 4G connectivity - ITWeb Africa
LTEKenya2018-05-30Telkom Kenya expands 4G in Nairobi outskirts - Business Daily
LTETogo2018-06-11Togo: 4G in…at last! - Togo First
LTESouth Africa2018-06-20No airtime or SMSs on Rain Mobile
AuctionTanzania700MHz2018-06-26Bakhresa's Azam Mobile, Vodacom secure new broadband - Business | The Citizen
AuctionTanzania700MHz2018-06-26Vodacom Tanzania welcomes the announcement of the 700 MHz Spectrum Auction results | | IT News Africa – Africa's Technology News Leader
LTETogo2018-07-02Togocel launches 4G for its 20th anniversary - Togo First
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-07-18Government won’t reduce cost of 4G spectrum - George Andah | Business News 2018-07-18
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-07-24Vice President Hints At Vodafone Ghana Soon Gaining Access To The 4G LTE spectrum - Tech Nova
AuctionMozambique800MHz2018-07-264G em Moçambique pode acontecer ainda em 2018
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-08-12Other telcos to enjoy 4G soon – NCA assures | Business News 2018-08-12
SpectrumSouth Africa2018-08-15Liquid Telecom in talks to share idle spectrum
LTEKenya2018-08-17Telkom Kenya boosts network with 200 new 4G sites in Nairobi
LTEKenya2018-08-18Airtel takes 4G beyond Nairobi, Mombasa - Business Daily
AuctionGhana2018-08-19Broadband chamber calls for ‘better spectrum pricing policies’ -
AuctionMozambique800MHz2018-08-23Anuncio Leilao do Espectro.pdf
LTEAngola2018-08-24Unitel adding five more 4G cities this year; aims to cover all communes in less than three years
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-08-28National Communication Authority to Sell Last 4G Spectrum - Tech Voice Africa
AuctionMozambique800MHz2018-08-31Mozambique to conduct 4G auction on 25 October | Balancing Act - Africa
LTESeychelles2018-08-31Airtel Seychelles launches 4G broadband ‘fixed replacement’ service
LTESenegal2018-09-07Orange booste la vitesse de connexion avec le déploiement de la 4G+ - KoldaNews
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-09-12NCA Opens Applications For Three 4G Spectrum Slots
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-09-14National Communications Authority Sets Spectrum Price At $33.75m
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-09-14NCA's new 4G move: A fix or more miss? -
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-09-15NCA Sets New 4G Spectrum Price At US$33.75m
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-09-15NCA's new 4G move: a fix or more mess? - Ghana Business News
LTETanzania2018-09-20Tigo launches 4g+ network in Tanzania | Tigo Tanzania
LTENigeria2018-09-24Globacom upgrades Nigerian networks
LTEMozambique2018-09-28Vodacom é a primeira Operadora a lançar tecnologia 4G em Moçambique
LTESouth Africa2018-09-28Vodacom launches "false" 4G service in Mozambique
LTENigeria2018-10-01Airtel 4G reaches Delta, Rivers State
AuctionMauritania2018-10-05Mauritania hoping to attract new player as part of 4G sale
LTENamibia2018-10-10Paratus to begin work on second phase of TD-LTE network
LTENigeria2018-10-25Airtel expands 4G network to Lagos; 100 cities to be covered by end-March
LTEKenya2018-10-31Kisumu, Eldoret and Nakuru next in line for Airtel 4G
AuctionGhana2600MHz2018-11-01MTN Targets Goldkey's 4G Spectrum In Exchange For Shares
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-11-01NCA Spectrum Auction Produces Interesting Bids: Vodafone $24m, Quantum $2m
LTENigeria2018-11-05Glo extends 4G LTE to 36 states, 208 tertiary institutions - Daily Post Nigeria
LTESomalia2018-11-05Mogadishu gets 4G mobile network - Daily Nation
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-11-16Ghana's regulator at crossroads over 4G spectrum - ITWeb Africa
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-11-16NCA to Accept Bids for 4G Spectrum - Tech Voice Africa
AuctionMozambique800MHz2018-11-23Mcel, Vodacom and Movitel now have available spectrum for 4G in Mozambique
LTEKenya2018-11-23Telkom Kenya Set to Expand 4G/3G Coverage with a KES 4.1 Billion Loan
LTEZambia2018-11-26Zamtel announces 4G mobile launch
AuctionMozambique800MHz2018-11-30Microsoft Word - press release 30.11.2018 Leilão Editado.docx
LTEMali2018-11-30Malitel launches 4G commercially
LTEAlgeria2018-12-03Mobilis LTE reaches another ten provinces
LTESenegal2018-12-06Tigo Senegal obtains 4G licence
AuctionMozambique800MHz2018-12-12Mozambique expects to raise over US$83-million from spectrum auction - ITWeb Africa
LTENamibia2018-12-20Telecom Namibia enhances 3G, 4G coverage
SpectrumSouth Africa2018-12-21Liquid Telecom to build national 4G network in South Africa - TechCentral
AuctionGhana800MHz2018-12-28Vodafone Ghana wins 4G licence bid at US$30m | Business News 2018-12-26
LTENigeria2018-12-29Finally, Airtel 4G LTE Network Is Up And Running; Get Free 4GB 4G Data For The Test Run - High Technologies
LTEBurundi2018-03-05Burundi : Lumitel étend son service 4G à l’ensemble du pays - Agence Ecofin
LTEBurundi2018-03-06Viettel’s Burundian mobile operator Lumitel extends 4G nationwide
LTEGhana800MHz2018-12-26< href="">Vodafone Ghana Gets 4G Licence at US$30m

Unlicensed and Dynamic Spectrum

Another ‘new normal’ these days is WiFi. As WiFi comes standard on more and more phones, WiFi access has become a natural value-add to any venue and is remarkably inexpensive to deploy. Hence it is not surprising to see governments, enterprises, and network operators (both commercial and not-for-profit) everywhere putting up WiFi infrastructure. The unresolved question is who should pay for the backhaul/bandwidth. In some cases the government underwrites the cost as a public good. For many businesses, it is like providing parking; a way to draw customers in. In others cases, it is sold on a pay-as-you-go model just like mobile broadband. Still other providers operate a third-party pays model where sponsors and/or advertisers cover the cost of bandwidth. There are a host of WiFi startups that are trying to figure out what the optimum sustainability model is. In the Eastern Cape in South Africa, a cooperative model has been adopted by Zenzeleni Networks to deliver affordable broadband in areas that are too poor and sparsely populated to interest commercial operators. This model appears to be thriving. What is exciting about WiFi is that it allows the kind of innovation that will see successful, sustainable business models naturally emerge from hundreds of experiments.

In the world of dynamic spectrum or Television White Spaces (TVWS) there have been a couple of big leaps forward on the continent. In March the South African regulator formally gazetted rules for the use of TVWS in the country. It has still to appoint an administrator for the geo-location database but has apparently already granted permission in October to an operator to proceed in the deployment of TVWS infrastructure.

Mozambique also made substantial moves toward TVWS regulation. They partnered with Nominet, the UK internet registry who have developed a TVWS geo-location database, to run trials early in 2018. They have plans to announce a regulatory norm shortly that will allow operators to deploy TVWS access technologies. The norm will have particular incentives for operators connecting rural areas and schools in particular.

WiFiKenya2018-04-10Facebook deepens spying in Kenya - Daily Nation
TVWSMozambique2018-05-03PowerPoint Presentation - Day3-5-2_ChallengesToUniversalAndAffordableConnectivity_SalomaoDavid.pdf
WiFiNamibia2017-07-19Windhoek to provide free Wi-Fi - The Namibian
WiFiNamibia2018-11-12City in N$150m Wi-Fi deal ... MTC and MTN among interested companies - The Namibian
WiFiNigeria2018-04-097 New Internet Service Providers (ISPs) Issued Licences by the NCC
WiFiNigeria2018-07-26Google Station launches free public WiFi in Nigeria — Quartz
WiFiNigeria2018-07-27Google Adding Free Wi-Fi Hotspots In Nigeria As Part of Push In Africa | Fortune
WiFiNigeria2018-07-30Majority Of Organizations Have Too Few Cybersecurity Workers
WiFiNigeria, Ghana2018-09-06Nigerian ISP, Tizeti expands into Ghana | IT News Africa – Africa's Technology News Leader
WiFiRegional2018-01-10Yahsat and Tanaza partner to increase the number of public Wi-Fi hotspots globally
WiFiSouth Africa2018-02-25Western Cape free Wi-Fi and 1Gbps fibre project update
TVWSSouth Africa2018-03-23Regulations on the use of Television White Spaces 2018 — Independent Communications Authority of South Africa
WiFiSouth Africa2018-03-276-month extension for city's free wi-fi | Pretoria News
WiFiSouth Africa2018-06-08Wi-Fi remains free in the capital – The Citizen
WiFiSouth Africa2018-07-09HeroTel's acquisitive trail continues | ITWeb
WiFiSouth Africa2018-07-24Tshwane free Wi-Fi not canned - metro | Rekord East
WiFiSouth Africa2018-09-11The current state of free public WiFi in South Africa -
TVWSSouth Africa2018-10-14The new mobile network for rural South Africa – How it works
TVWSSouth Africa2018-10-15AfriCanopy to deploy low-cost Internet to rural KwaZulu-Natal in TV white space trial
WiFiSouth Africa2018-11-30Liquid, Western Cape govt partner to boost public Wi-Fi access - ITWeb Africa
WiFiSouth Africa2018-12-29Significant progress in the restoration of free ‘Tshwi-fi’ | Pretoria News
WiFiTogo2018-02-23Togo-Internet : le réseau TEOLIS opérationnel | CIO MAG
WiFiTogo2018-04-09Togo : le gouvernement se lance dans le maillage de tout le territoire national par des hotspots wifi publics
WiFiTunisia2018-08-08Le conseil municipal de Raoued adopte le Wifi public gratuit dans deux parcs de la ville
WiFiUganda2018-01-06Church provides internet in northern Uganda, connects more than computers | National Catholic Reporter
WiFiZimbabwe2018-01-11Econet to accelerate WiFi rollout | The Zimbabwe Daily
WiFiZimbabwe2018-01-19Zimbabwe's Silent Revolution: Public Wi-Fi | Fast Forward | OZY
WiFiZimbabwe2018-07-26Free Wifi for College Students - Technology News Zimbabwe


Satellite broadband is a technology to watch in the next year or two. It feels a bit like the calm before the storm in satellite service delivery. There are a couple trends that are poised to re-shape the industry.

The first is the launching of High Throughput Satellites (HTS) which are capable of delivering modern broadband speeds at realistic prices for ISPs. HTS satellites have been around for a while but 2018 represents a shift to more widespread accessibility of these services and hopefully more competitive prices. At the end of 2017, there were few HTS satellites offering services over the continent. They included Al Yah 2 (2012) and Intelsat 33e (2016). Services from these satellites have brought satellite broadband prices down but there are still a limited number of countries where the service is available and prices, though cheaper, may still be beyond what can enable a sustainable ISP service.

2018 saw the launch of Al Yah 3 which can offer broadband services in 19 countries in the region. Another HTS launch in 2018 came from Avanti with the Hylas 4 satellite. These satellites are signs that HTS services are reaching critical mass over Africa; offering real alternatives to terrestrial backhaul for rural service delivery in particular. Expect more HTS launches in 2019, such as Spacecom’s Amos 17, Eutelsat’s KonnectAfrica and others. If prices come down further on HTS services, this could have a real impact on rural internet service delivery on the continent.

Meanwhile, O3B, a Middle Earth Orbit (MEO) satellite network that launched in 2013 providing high-speed broadband to operators and corporates, expanded their constellation from 12 to 16 satellites in 2018. As a service, they are out of the financial reach of most small to medium service providers. Their clients range from the government of Burkina Faso to mobile network operators in Central African Republic or South Sudan.

The biggest change in the satellite industry, which has yet to bear fruit but whose impact has the potential to re-shape the access landscape, is the launch of several new Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite broadband networks, including OneWeb, Spacex’s StarLink, Telesat LEO and others. Launches have already begun for these satellite constellations, which require hundreds of satellites. Some promise to be in service as early as 2020. If these come to fruition, they are likely to change the broadband market substantially providing new competition, driving down prices in served markets and providing affordable access alternatives in remote, underserved regions.

As with any new technology though, the proof is in the pudding. Just launching a single satellites can be a risky business. Operating a constellation of hundreds of satellites introduces new levels of complexity of operation and maintenance. It seems inevitable that LEO broadband satellites will be commercially available in the near future but 2020 may be an optimistic estimate.

If satellite broadband is new to you, I highly recommend this talk by my colleague Jon Brewer at NSRC. Or if you think you already know everything there is to know about satellite, try this interesting analysis of potential throughput of three different LEO constellations.

Global2018-01-26After launch scare, satellites found safely in orbit
Algeria2018-03-13Algerie Telecom Satellite prepares triple-play service
Angola2018-04-23Angola confirms loss of its first satellite, eagerly awaits successor Angosat-2
Burkina Faso2018-05-08Burkina Faso extends O3b access deal with SES Networks
Cameroon2018-10-02Emirati Yahsat launches internet service in Cameroon
Global2018-06-28OneWeb and SpaceX are leading the way to global internet with smallsat constellations –
Global2018-05-01OneWeb shifts first launch to year’s end -
Global2018-07-27SES S.A.: Half Year 2018 Results
Global2018-01-08This is the Year Internet From Space Gets Really Serious - Universe Today
Uganda2018-05-28Uganda's regulator pens satellite connectivity deal
Global2018-01-29Yahsat confirms launch of Al Yah 3 mission


This year I decided to include a list of articles (below) that seemed relevant to African telecom infrastructure but didn’t fit neatly into a single category. Among them, one thing that stands out for me is the news of operator mergers and of failed operators. In Kenya, Airtel and Telkom Kenya have been exploring a merger and, in Mozambique, TDM and mCel have just completed a merger. In Uganda, Vodafone filed for bankruptcy. In Ghana, second-tier service provider Surfline shut down. And just at the end of 2017 Airtel and Tigo merged in Ghana.

This is not entirely surprising. As mobile network operators become increasingly similar in business model and operation, outsourcing both infrastructure and operations to the same companies, it is not surprising that service delivery becomes a race to the bottom with only a few dominant operators surviving.

This is compounded by the fact that deeper and deeper pockets are required to purchase and retain the spectrum licenses needed to deliver next-generation broadband, effectively shutting out all but the biggest operators.

Real competition is more likely to be enabled by platforms that are sufficiently technologically distinct so as to have different capital and operation costs, allowing innovative business models to emerge. Fibre optic network operators, FTTH service providers, WiFi-based ISPs are all challenging the standard business model of MNOs and could do more if regulators were to enable affordable access to spectrum for small and medium size operators and for under-served regions.

3GGhana2018-04-05Vodafone expands 3G network to 25 new locations
CensorshipRegional2018-07-17African governments silence social media, bloggers on Twitter, WhatsApp, Facebook — Quartz
ChinaRegional2018-07-25More of Africa Finds Itself in China’s Debt - WSJ
ChinaRegional2018-09-17China’s suspicious interest in Africa’s internet networks — Features — The Guardian Nigeria Newspaper – Nigeria and World News
ChinaRegional2018-11-05Reality Check: Is China burdening Africa with debt? - BBC News
ChinaRegional2018-11-05Africa: China Plans to Sell Off Its African Infrastructure Debt to Investors -
ChinaGhana2018-12-08Ghana seeks 100 mln USD in providing rural telephony: minister - Xinhua |
Data CentresRegional2018-02-08African countries invest in data centres - Afrika News
Data CentresKenya2018-08-07Telkom Kenya completes US$1.5 million datacentre project - ITWeb Africa
Data CentresGuinea2018-10-15Government announces launch of Guinea’s first internet exchange point
EcommerceKenya2018-01-18Facebook threatens Jumia's dominance in Africa - ITWeb Africa
EcommerceKenya2018-01-19Mobile money deal spells doom for M-Pesa - Business Today News
EconomySouth Africa2018-01-19OPINION: Fourth Industrial Revolution seemingly holds the key to growth in South Africa | IOL Business Report
EconomyLiberia2018-03-14Preparing for a Data-Driven Revolution in Liberia | JIA SIPA
EconomySouth Africa2018-07-16How the government is holding back fibre rollouts in South Africa
EconomyRwanda2018-10-09Rwandan operator KTRN to slash 4G prices
EconomyKenya2018-11-02Safaricom Half-Year net profit rises to Sh31.5 billion :: Kenya - The Standard
EducationNigeria2018-01-24MainOne partners with West and Central African Research and Education Network (WACREN) to boost connectivity in research and education institutions - CNBC Africa
FacebookCameroon2018-02-06MTN Cameroon partners with Facebook to launch Facebook Flex
FacebookKenya2018-02-08This is why Facebook Groups are the reason OLX is exiting Kenya, Nigeria
FacebookMalawi2018-06-08Facebook to work together with Malawi's government
FacebookRegional2018-07-10After Troubles in Myanmar, Facebook Charges Ahead in Africa | WIRED
FacebookUganda2018-08-08Facebook to hold back planned Uganda investments over social media - Africa | The Citizen
FacebookTanzania2018-08-20Expanding Wi-Fi access in Tanzania: Facebook’s Boston office adds to global Internet push - The Boston Globe
GoogleSouth Africa2018-04-12Google launches lightweight Go search app in South Africa - TechCentral
GoogleKenya2018-06-27Google to sign Internet balloon deals with Kenya telcos - Business Daily
GoogleKenya2018-07-18Bringing Loon to Kenya – Loon Blog – Medium
GoogleKenya2018-07-19BBC News: Google's Loon brings internet-by-balloon to Kenya
GoogleKenya2018-07-19Loon's Balloon-Powered Internet Heads to Africa
GoogleKenya2018-07-20Coming soon: Internet to Kenya's remote villages - Daily Nation
GoogleUganda2018-08-28Google's project loon comes to Uganda to offer 4G-LTE speeds in rural areas -
GoogleUganda2018-08-30Uganda wants Alphabet's Loon to provide balloon-borne internet service - Business Insider
GoogleSouth Africa2018-09-11YouTube Go launches in South Africa, with videos using less data — Quartz Africa
GoogleKenya2018-11-16Google's high-flying balloons to provide Internet in Africa - TechCentral
GoogleKenya2018-11-18Telkom to launch balloon-powered Internet next year - Business Daily
Infrastructure SharingSouth Africa2018-03-07Vodacom and Cell C argue over sharing towers
Infrastructure SharingUganda2018-11-21Uganda to force new telcos share infrastructure - Business Daily
InnovationSouth Africa2018-06-04Connecting mobile audiences #datafree - biNu
InvestmentNigeria2018-02-20MDXi invests $6.58m in Lagos expansion | News | DatacenterDynamics
LicensingUganda2018-01-15MTN licence expires, rivals fight renewal
Low-costRegional2018-06-14NuRAN Selected by Africa Mobile Networks for Multiple African Countries Canadian Stock Exchange:NUR.CN
LTELibya2018-10-18Almadar Aljaded launches 4G+ service in Libya
M&ARwanda2018-01-24Bharti Airtel receives regulatory nod to buy Millicom's Rwanda unit - The Economic Times
M&AUganda2018-02-21Debt Burdened Vodafone Files For Bankruptcy
M&ARegional2018-03-15Telecoms M&A forecast to surge in Africa - TechCentral
M&AKenya2018-04-08Airtel and Telkom to merge in a bid to stem loss making streak :: Kenya - The Standard
M&AMozambique2018-05-08Mozambique: No Redundancies in TDM/Mcel Merger -
M&AZambia2018-08-13Liquid Group snaps up Zambian telecoms company - NewsDay Zimbabwe
M&AMozambique2018-08-28TDM and mCel restructuring already underway
M&AUganda2018-10-30Uganda: Teleology Holdings faces performance, payment pressure - ITWeb Africa
M&AGhana2018-10-31Surfline closed down after failing to pay taxes
M&ARwanda2018-01-24MTN Improves 3G Network, as Competitors Merge  – KT PRESS
OtherNigeria2018-09-14Capacity Media - global telecoms news, events and community
RegulationKenya2018-01-16KISERO: Wangusi’s woes may be about big bucks, giant projects at CA - Daily Nation
RegulationNigeria2018-02-13A call for infrastructure sharing in Africa
RegulationMalawi2018-02-13Govt. orders SIM registration to stop | Malawi 24 - All the latest Malawi news
RegulationTanzania2018-03-02TCRA launches biometric sim card registration
RegulationUganda2018-03-02The Uganda Communications Commission issues new ban on street vendors selling airtime -
RegulationZimbabwe2018-04-30Zimbabwe to merge regulators
RegulationUganda2018-05-24Africell contravening SIM registration guidelines, UCC says
RegulationKenya2018-05-29Communications Authority of Kenya orders operators to deactivate unregistered sim cards :: Kenya - The Standard
RegulationZimbabwe2018-06-04Potraz rakes in over $120m | The Herald
RegulationSouth Africa2018-06-25Vodacom keeps track of all the websites you visit – Updated privacy policy
RegulationUganda2018-07-18Uganda nets Sh188mn from social media, mobile money tax - Daily Nation
RegulationNigeria2018-08-30MTN shares crash 23% to 2009 lows on $8bn demand from Nigeria
RegulationKenya2018-09-04Safaricom faces $4.47 million fine by telecom regulator | IT News Africa – Africa's Technology News Leader
RegulationKenya2018-09-21CA orders disconnection of illegal SIM cards by 23 September
RegulationRegional2018-10-05Internet Taxes Could Stifle Africa's Free and Vibrant Social Media
RegulationMalawi2018-10-05Airtel disconnects million subscribers | Malawi 24 - Malawi news
RegulationUganda2018-11-05URA Reveals UGX103 Billion Collected From Mobile Money Tax Between July & September - PC Tech Magazine
RegulationUganda2018-12-27It’s Illogical to Choose VPNs Over Uganda’s Development, Says Tumwebaze – Online news from Uganda and the East African region – SoftPower News
SatelliteGhana2018-09-04Yahsat launches high speed satellite service in Ghana | Business News 2018-09-04
TowersRegional2018-03-02Helios Towers eyes JSE, London listing | ITWeb
TowersKenya2018-05-08American Tower Grows in Africa, to Buy Telkom Kenya Towers - May 8, 2018 -
TowersNigeria2018-05-24Revenue: IHS battle 3 states
TowersRegional2018-06-18African Telecom Firm Eaton Towers Postpones IPO - Bloomberg
TowersRegional2018-08-15Helios Investing in Congo Towers After Scrapping IPO Plans - Bloomberg
Universal ServiceKenya2018-02-25CA’s Sh85m plan to link remote areas with mobile voice - Business Daily
Universal ServiceTogo2018-04-20Togo adopts universal electronic communications services decree
WholesaleCote D’Ivoire2018-04-23MainOne gains Côte d’Ivoire licence boosting wholesale connectivity
Zero RatingSouth Africa2018-09-22'No longer feasible': MTN pulls plug on free Twitter - TechCentral
South Africa2018-01-31Vodacom Now!: Vodacom Siyakha turns 1!

This work would not have been possible without the support of the Network Startup Resource Center and the Mozilla Foundation

Series Navigation<< Africa Telecoms Infrastructure in 2017Africa Telecoms Infrastructure in 2019 >>

Posted by Steve Song

@stevesong local telco policy activist. social entrepreneur. founder of @villagetelco #africa #telecoms #opensource #privacy #wireless #spectrum #data